ICAO charts are used to determine flight restriction areas (ED-R). You can obtain these from
- Bodies of water
- Traffic routes
- No-fly zones
ICAO charts are aeronautical charts designed in accordance with the guidelines of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and published by Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH. They can be obtained from flying schools and specialised shops for air sports equipment.
A basic distinction is made between controlled and uncontrolled airspace, in which corresponding rules apply. In uncontrolled airspace G (Gulf), the principle of visual flight rules (VFR) applies. This means that every pilot (whether a drone pilot or a pilot in manned aviation) must pay attention to other aircraft and take evasive action if necessary. A minimum visual range is required for this. For rotorcraft, such as helicopters or multicopters, this is 800 metres; for fixed-wing aircraft, such as gliders or motorised aircraft, it is 1500 metres. This also means that flying a drone in fog is ruled out if the drone is easily recognisable but visibility conditions do not allow other distant aircraft to be seen. It would then no longer be possible to intervene in time to take evasive action.
Control zones (CTR - controlled traffic region) usually extend around an airport or landing site (special airspace D). Flying through at an altitude of more than 50 metres or within a 1.5 km radius of the airport boundary is only permitted with the approval of the responsible air traffic control unit (often the tower).
There are also ATZ (aerodrome traffic zone), TMZ (transponder mandatory zone) and RMZ (radio mandatory zone), which require the aircraft to have radio communication equipment or a transponder in this area. As drones generally do not fulfil this requirement, the airspace cannot be used here in purely technical terms. However, an ascent is possible in consultation with the air traffic control centre at the relevant airfield.
Temporary flight restriction areas and flight obstacles, such as failed lighting for wind turbines or short-term orders (airspace closures due to major events, for example) are not included in the analogue charts and are published as NOTAM (notice to airmen) in the DFS AIS portal.
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